For over a decade, rising worldwide consideration has been targeted on China’s remedy of Xinjiang’s Uyghur inhabitants. While Beijing is cautious of all types of separatism—Hong Kong and Tibet being its different main issues on this regard—sustaining an iron grip on Xinjiang is of utmost significance. The Xinjiang area’s pure resource deposits, strategic location in China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which includes the creation of financial and commerce corridors, and hyperlinks to the bodily protection of China are the obvious causes for China to wish to maintain a stronghold within the area. But the enchantment of the Islamic and Turkic nationalism in Xinjiang has additionally highlighted the issue China faces in managing inside stability with out upsetting the broader Islamic and Turkic worlds.
Xinjiang’s largely flat terrain made it a major a part of the historic Silk Road route. The area’s geography and proximity to quite a few Eurasian cultures and civilizations have additionally made it a contested land for hundreds of years, with competing narratives over its history and cultural traits. The title Xinjiang, for instance, interprets to “New Frontier” or “New Dominion” in Chinese, whereas Uyghur nationalists refer to the area as East Turkestan. Chinese students posit that Uyghurs are descended from nomadic Uyghurs from modern-day Mongolia and settled in Xinjiang within the ninth century (becoming a member of different teams, together with the Han Chinese). Uyghur historians, alternatively, are likely to stress their Central Asian Turkic origins, with East Turkestan their historic homeland.
Regardless of the historic debate over the lineage of Uyghurs, a definite Muslim and Turkic id had emerged amongst parts of Xinjiang’s inhabitants within the 18th century when China’s Qing Dynasty reconquered the area. According to historical records, the Chinese marketing campaign break up the Uyghur inhabitants from the opposite Turkic teams of Central Asia, which later got here beneath the management of the Russian Empire. Hostility towards Chinese rule in Xinjiang amongst Muslims from a wide range of completely different cultural backgrounds culminated within the Dungan Revolt from 1862 to 1877, with rebels receiving help from each the Ottoman and British empires. Despite the profitable Chinese suppression and pacification of Xinjiang afterward, nationalist sentiment grew inside the Muslim-Turkic inhabitants, and the time period Uyghur began to be used to describe much of the local Muslim-Turkic population across the Tarim Basin by the early twentieth century.
The fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912 gave option to China’s Warlord Era and ensuing civil battle. Chinese nationalists, communists, Uyghur teams, and Russian/Soviet expeditions all competed with each other for management of Xinjiang. While the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) emerged victorious in 1949, the Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency (1950-1958) throughout Xinjiang and different close by areas underlined the specter of political Islam to China’s fragile new management. In addition, the Soviet Union encouraged Uyghurs to revolt (in addition to Kazakhs dwelling in Xinjiang) to destabilize China after the Sino-Soviet break up within the Nineteen Sixties.
In the Nineties, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Uyghurs’ resistance to Chinese rule of Xinjiang changed in nature. The Soviet collapse allowed unbiased Turkic states to emerge in Central Asia, inspiring comparable nationalist sentiment amongst Uyghurs. The rise of worldwide terrorism additionally led Islamic and Turkic militant teams inside Xinjiang and throughout the area to coordinate actions. These developments brought on appreciable alarm in Beijing, and following public demonstrations by Uyghurs towards Chinese rule within the metropolis of Yining in 1995—after “the Chinese authorities [had already] tightened their control over Islam in Xinjiang”—the CCP issued a document called the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee Document No. 7 in 1996, which said that “national separatism and illegal religious activity” ought to be categorized as “main threats to the stability” of the nation in response to the scenario in Xinjiang. Thereafter, a “Strike Hard Campaign against Violent Terrorism” was adopted within the Xinjiang area in 2014, and additional public demonstrations have been violently suppressed whereas quite a few Uyghur political figures have been imprisoned or killed.
However, violent resistance towards the insurance policies of the CCP in Xinjiang continued to develop in the course of the first twenty years of the twenty first century. Knife assaults and bombings elevated, whereas riots in Urumqi in 2009 noticed nearly 200 individuals killed. To quell the protests by the Uyghurs, Chinese authorities responded with pressure and arrests and in 2017 launched additional new and oppressive measures, which included “[detaining] many hundreds of thousands of Uighurs, Kazakhs and other Muslims in internment camps,” according to the New York Times. These camps have been known as re-education camps by the state. Mass surveillance, checkpoints, and an elevated safety presence in Uyghur areas have positioned larger strain on the Uyghur inhabitants. The suppression of Uyghur cultural norms and creation of detention facilities the place greater than 1 million Uyghurs have been detained “against their will over the past few years” have drawn the best worldwide scrutiny relating to China’s insurance policies within the Xinjiang area, which have been outlined as “crimes against humanity and possibly genocide” by a number of international locations, together with the U.S. and human rights teams. China continues to limit worldwide entry to the area within the lead-up to the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics, resulting in some international locations asserting diplomatic boycotts of the Olympics.
For a number of causes, Beijing is keen to take care of its strain on Xinjiang within the face of worldwide outcry from the West and sure components from throughout the Islamic and Turkic worlds. Xinjiang contains 40 % of China’s coal, roughly 20 % of its oil reserves and the most important pure gasoline reserves, and vital deposits of constructing supplies like marble and granite. As the Chinese financial system continues to extend its power necessities, sustaining entry to Xinjiang’s coal, oil, and gasoline reserves is important to China’s present and future power safety. Additionally, the area’s location makes it an important a part of the route for China’s BRI undertaking to attach European and Asian financial markets.
The success of larger regional autonomy (or outright secession) in Xinjiang would additionally not bode properly for Chinese makes an attempt to dissuade comparable makes an attempt throughout the nation. Hong Kong, Tibet, and even much less notable secession actions can be incentivized to extend their very own efforts ought to secessionists in Xinjiang succeed. The lack of Xinjiang would additionally make China extra prone to hypothetical future invasions. A extra probably and instant state of affairs can be challenges to Chinese authority throughout its border areas, together with its violently disputed territory with India, Aksai Chin, which types a part of Xinjiang and Tibet, and which India claims is a part of its Leh district within the nation’s Ladakh union territory.
While China’s motives for its tight management on Xinjiang are clear, the results of its insurance policies are additionally changing into extra pronounced. Anti-Chinese sentiment in Central Asia has risen lately, regardless of makes an attempt by Central Asian governments to curtail it and guarantee continued Chinese financial funding. While many Turkic international locations and communities proceed to battle amongst themselves, they’re usually unified by their disdain towards China’s remedy of Uyghurs in Xinjiang. For China to comprehend its BRI undertaking, a constructive notion of it among the many Turkic populations in Central Asian states’ populations will probably be essential.
China’s outreach to Central Asian states has been additional sophisticated by Turkey. Owing to its personal Turkic heritage, the nation has been a major proponent of pan-Turkism, hosting the primary Summit of the Heads of Turkic Speaking States in 1992. Turkey has taken a very onerous line with China on the difficulty of Uyghurs, resulting in a number of diplomatic disputes over the past decade. Organizing larger worldwide objection to China’s remedy of the Uyghurs may impress pan-Turkism right into a viable ideology, with Turkey looking for to take a management function within the motion.
So far, China has managed to keep away from widespread condemnation from the Muslim world. Beijing has been cautious to emphasise its extra favorable remedy of the Hui Muslim inhabitants who additionally inhabit Xinjiang and different Chinese areas. China’s constructive relations with main Muslim international locations akin to Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, and Indonesia present it has been considerably profitable in its efforts to keep away from any backlash from these Muslim nations for its remedy of Uyghurs. But these international locations should themselves take care to not downplay the difficulty, for worry of incentivizing extremist Islamic forces. Radical Salafism has grow to be increasingly popular among Uyghur and other Chinese Muslim populations in Xinjiang, exemplified by the favored help for the Turkistan Islamic Party (previously often called the East Turkestan Islamic Movement). If Uyghurs really feel they don’t have any worldwide Muslim allies, the enchantment of extremism will develop additional.
While China’s home safety scenario is of paramount significance to the CCP, it stays delicate to worldwide perceptions of its insurance policies in Xinjiang. In addition, its repressive insurance policies might assist instill a stronger and extra resistant id among the many native Uyghur inhabitants. The CCP’s financial growth of Xinjiang is not going to be sufficient to considerably erode centuries-old beliefs and cultural loyalties. The historic precedent has proven that overseas states will make the most of unrest within the area to advertise their very own pursuits.